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Table 2 Summary of aim, methods, participants and reported results on gender analysis, if applicable, for the included qualitative studies

From: Gender perspectives on views and preferences of older people on exercise to prevent falls: a systematic mixed studies review

Article Aim Methods Participants Reported gender analysis
Clark et al. [24] To explore older, community-dwelling adults’ attitudes and values about proposed church-delivered balance classes for fall prevention to inform a social marketing campaign. Focus groups (n = 6) Inductive analysis 60 church members and potential users of the fall prevention exercise classes. Aged ≥60 year. Sex not reported. Country: USA Women respond to a fall-prevention message more than men, and men rely on women for motivation. Women’s gendered identities positioned them to be the primary motivators who could soften their “stubborn” men to enroll in health programs. Men’s gendered identities positioned them to protectively identify women as high-priority recipients of balance and fall-prevention messages.
Jagnoor et al. [30] To investigate fall prevention as a health priority among older people; to understand people’s perception of risk and concepts of fall injury prevention; and to explore acceptability of yoga as an intervention for falls prevention in the community. Focus groups (n = 6) Thematic analysis Gender divided focus groups in three sociodemographic clusters. 12–18 participants in each constellation. Aged >60 year. Sex not reported. Country: India The experience, knowledge, perceptions and health priorities were diverse and differed across the three sociodemographic groups, although these were similar among men and women within each sociodemographic group. Women considered themselves active enough with domestic work. No gender discussion.
Berlin Hallrup et al. [23] To explore the lived experience of fall risk from a life world perspective. Individual interviews Phenomenological reflective lifeworld approach 13 community dwelling older women with previous fragility fractures. Participants in a hip fracture prevention program comprising a bone mineral density scanning, and written fall preventive advice including advice on exercises. Aged between 76 and 86 years. Country: Sweden Only women included.
Hawley [25] To explore what might encourage older people to exercise at home after falls rehabilitation. Individual interviews Grounded theory approach 8 community dwelling, 1 nursing home resident. All had been through falls rehabilitation and offered home exercise programs Aged ≥60 year. Sex not reported. Country: UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Horne et al. [27] To explore the beliefs of both South Asian and White British community dwelling older adults in their 60s about falls and exercise for fall prevention. Focus groups (n = 15) and individual interviews Framework analysis 87 + 40 (81 women and 46 men) community dwelling participants. Aged between 60 and 70 year, Focus group mean age 65. Individual interviews mean age 64. Participants with different experiences of participation or nonparticipation in exercise. Country: UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Horne et al. [28] To identify salient beliefs that influence uptake and adherence to exercise for fall prevention among community-dwelling Caucasian and South Asian in UK. Ethnographic study participant observations, focus groups (n = 15) and individual interviews Framework analysis 87 + 40 (81 women and 46 men) community dwelling participants. Aged between 60 and 70 year, Focus group mean age 65. Individual interviews mean age 64. Participants with different experiences of participation or nonparticipation in exercise. Country: UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Hutton et al. [29] To develop an understanding of the perceptions that older adults at risk at of falls, and previously involved in organized group exercise, have of physical activity. Focus groups (n = 5) Thematic analysis 20 community dwelling persons (90% females) recruited from a RCT investigating the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing falls. Aged between 68 and 81 year, mean age 73. Country: New Zealand Gender not reported in quotes.
Lam et al. [31] To examine older people’s perceptions and experiences of falls, physiotherapy and exercise. Individual interviews Phenomenological approach 19 (10 women and 9 men) community dwelling Australian-born and Italian-born older persons who had more than one fall in the past 12 months and completed a community-based physiotherapy program. Aged between 65 and 89 years. Country: Australia Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Lindgren De Groot and Fagerström [33] To describe motivating factors and barriers for older adults to adhere to group exercise in the local community. Individual interviews Descriptive content analysis 10 (5 women and 5 men) community dwelling persons and former participants in a fall preventive exercise program. Aged between 71 and 91 year, mean age 83. Country: Norway Gender not reported in quotes.
Meyer et al. [34] To understand the perspectives of older people in adopting a home-based balance exercise program to address mild balance dysfunction, and to identify barriers and opportunities facing community health PTs in delivering this program. Focus groups (n = 2) with older participants, (focus groups, written surveys, and data recording sheets for PTs). Phenomenological approach. Thematic content analysis 9 (6 women and 3 men) community dwelling participants who had completed a six-month program. Aged between 67 and 86 years. 10 PTs Country: Australia Gender not reported in quotes
Moody et al. [35] To investigate participants’ perceptions of a twelve week aqua-aerobics program on falls risk and physical function in older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis. Focus groups (n = 4), one individual interview General inductive approach 17 (13 women and 4 men) community dwelling participants with lower extremity osteoarthritis who had completed a 12 week water-based exercise program. Aged between 68 and 89 years, mean age 78. Country; New Zealand Gender not reported in quotes.
Robinson et al. [37] To involve older people and PTs in the development of acceptable strategies to promote uptake and adherence with an exercise-based fall prevention program Focus groups (n = 3) with older people and with local PTs (n = 4) Framework analysis 12 (8 women and 4 men) older people attending a regional falls and syncope service including exercises. Aged between 72 and 88 years, mean age 79. 18 (14 women and 4 men) PTs in the region. Country: UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Simpson et al. [38] To examine the extent to which older people are willing to adopt any of the following strategies in order to avoid falling: balance and lower limb strengthening exercises. home safety advice, and ‘taking care’. Individual interviews Method of analysis not reported 32 (26 women and 6 men) persons discharged from acute elderly care medical wards. No experience of fall prevention exercises required. Aged >65 years, mean age 83. Country: UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Stathi and Simey [40] To explore the exercise experiences of nursing home residents who participated in a 6-month falls prevention exercise intervention. Individual interviews, 14 at baseline and 7 at follow-up Interpretive phenomenological analysis 14 (12 women and 2 men) nursing home residents who participated in a 6-month chair-based exercise program. Aged between 86 and 99 years. Country: UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.
Suttanon et al. [41] Identify factors that influence commencement and adherence to a home-based balance exercise program for older people with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individual interviews Phenomenological theoretical framework 10 (7 women and 3 men) participants with AD and 9 (6 women and 3 men) of their caregivers, who had completed a six-month home-based balance exercise program. Participants with AD aged between 75 and 89 years, mean age 81. Caregivers aged between 58 and 85 years, mean age 71. Country: Australia Mostly quotes from women, no comparison.
Vernon and Ross [42] To explore the reasons older people had for attending local postural stability exercise classes. Individual interviews, 22 at baseline and 17 at follow up Thematic analysis 22 (20 women and 2 men) community dwelling participants who had fallen and attended balance exercise classes. Aged between 65 and 94 years. Country: UK Gender not reported in quotes.
Wong et al. [44] To estimate the uptake rate of a fall prevention program To explore the attitudes towards acceptance of the exercise class included in a fall prevention program. among older fallers and explore related factors Focus groups (n = 3) Content analysis (Baseline telephone interviews (n. 1194) and a 1-year follow-up telephone survey (n. 969) with older people or their carers) Focus Groups: (9 women and 4 men) previous fallers among who attended exercise classes based on the FaME protocol. Aged between 65 and 91 year, mean age 76. Country: Hong Kong Gender not reported in quotes.
Yardley et al. [45] To identify factors common to a variety of populations and settings that may promote or inhibit uptake and adherence to falls related interventions Individual interviews Framework analysis 69 (50 women and 19 men) older people, two thirds (46) had been offered an intervention, and half (32) had taken part in an intervention. Aged between 68 and 97 years, mean age 79. Countries: Denmark, Germany, Greece, Switzerland, The Netherlands, and UK Quotes from both men and women but no comparison.