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Table 4 Between racial/ethnic groupa change in number of cigarettes smoked among smokers in the period preceding and following chronic disease diagnosis, HRS 1992–2010

From: Racial and ethnic differences in smoking changes after chronic disease diagnosis among middle-aged and older adults in the United States

  Diabetes Heart Disease Stroke Cancer Lung Disease
Post-diagnosis cigarettes smoked (n = 490) Post-diagnosis cigarettes smoked (n = 832) Post-diagnosis cigarettes smoked (n = 317) Post-diagnosis cigarettes smoked (n = 348) Post-diagnosis cigarettes smoked (n = 758)
IRR 95% CI IRR 95% CI IRR 95% CI IRR 95% CI IRR 95% CI
White (reference group) - - - - - - - - - -
Black 0.70** 0.54–0.91 0.54** 0.41–0.72 0.53** 0.35–0.80 0.67* 0.47–0.96 1.02 0.77–1.35
Latino 0.42** 0.29–0.62 0.63* 0.44–0.90 0.78 0.40–1.53 0.89 0.47–1.68 0.62 0.35–1.10
Age (years) 0.98* 0.97–0.99 0.98* 0.97–0.99 1.00 0.98–1.02 0.98 0.96–1.00 0.99 0.98–1.00
Female 0.98 0.79–1.21 1.14 0.93–1.39 0.9 0.69–1.17 0.79 0.59–1.05 0.95 0.80–1.11
Education (years) 0.99 0.96–1.03 0.97* 0.94–0.99 1.00 0.96–1.05 0.95 0.91–1.00 0.98 0.95–1.02
Income (thousands) 1.00 0.99–1.00 1.00 0.99–1.00 1.00 0.99–1.00 0.99* 0.99–0.99 1.00 0.99–1.00
Insured 1.08 0.65–1.79 1.16 0.81–1.68 1.31 0.80–2.15 1.05 0.73–1.50 0.99 0.81–1.20
ADL/IADL score (0–11) 0.98 0.95–1.02 1.01 0.97–1.05 1.07* 1.01–1.13 0.98 0.93–1.03 0.96* 0.92–0.99
Comorbidity (0–7) 0.92 0.83–1.03 1.00 0.91–1.09 1.04 0.93–1.15 1.00 0.89–1.13 1.04 0.96–1.13
SRH (1–5) 0.87* 0.77–0.99 1.00 0.89–1.12 1.12 0.92–1.36 1.03 0.84–1.14 0.98 0.88–1.10
Pre-diagnosis cigarettes smoked 1.02** 1.01–1.03 1.02** 1.01–1.03 1.03** 1.02–1.04 1.02** 1.02–1.04 1.03** 1.02–1.04
  1. All model covariates as assessed at the post-diagnosis time period. All analyses were weighted (post-diagnosis weight) and adjusted for complex sampling design using SAS 9.2. Statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in smoking change are bolded
  2. Acronyms: HRS Health and Retirement Study, OR odds ratios, IRR incidence rate ratios
  3. aWhite as reference group. Statistical test significance levels: * < .05; ** < .01