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Table 4 Results from a mixed effect logistic regression model on the likelihood of ASB – using original treatment assignment as a covariate

From: Impact of a decision-making aid for suspected urinary tract infections on antibiotic overuse in nursing homes

  Odds ratio 95 % CI p
Fixed effect    
 High intensity training 0.77 0.32–1.86 0.57
 Low intensity training 1.19 0.47–3.01 0.71
Age    
 ≤75 vs 86+ 1.09 0.69–1.73 0.72
 76–85 vs 86+ 0.96 0.64–1.44 0.86
 Female 0.84 0.54–1.30 0.43
 White 1.11 0.64–1.95 0.71
Urinary incontinence a    
 Always incontinent vs continent 1.93 1.05–3.56 0.04
 Frequently incontinent vs continent 1.36 0.78–2.38 0.28
 Occasionally incontinent vs continent 1.16 0.65–2.09 0.61
 Catheterized a 1.04 0.48–2.24 0.92
 ADL hierarchy (0–6) 1.07 0.89–1.27 0.47
 Ability to communicate (0–3) 1.26 1.00–1.59 0.05
 Post vs Pre 0.99 0.51–1.94 0.98
Interaction between time period and training    
 Pre/post and high intensityb 0.79 0.33–1.88 0.59
 Pre/post and low intensityb 0.63 0.25–1.60 0.33
 Random Effect Variance St. Error  
 Home 0.2105 0.1304  
  1. aDuring the study time period the MDS 3.0 was implemented. During implementation nursing homes were given leeway in documenting status. This resulted in a high number of missing observations for variables such as urinary incontinence and presence of catheter. Sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the overall effect on the models; the models remained robust
  2. bThese interaction terms reflect the difference in changes from pre to post comparing treatment groups to the control group, so they are our main interest