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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: People with dementia in nursing home research: a methodological review of the definition and identification of the study population

Publication Author Study aim Study design Sample size
NH P
  Experimental studies
[54] Bär et al. 2006 Efficacy of an individual approach in the care of people with dementia to stimulate positive emotions CT N/A 46
[82] Berg et al. 2010 Efficacy of snoezelen, structured reminiscence therapy and 10-minute activation on apathy in dementia C-RCT N/A 360
[107] Dichter et al. 2015 Testing the effectiveness of Dementia Care Mapping on PwD and caregivers, exploring implementation facilitators and barriers CT 9 154
[76] Graessel et al. 2011 Efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention on the cognition of residents with dementia RCT (Follow-up) 5 98
[108] Halek et al. 2013 Efficacy of dementia care mapping on the quality of life of residents with dementia CT 9 N/A
[70] Kuske et al. 2009 Effectiveness of a nursing home training staff for the interaction between residents with dementia and their caregivers C-RCT 6 298
[77] Luttenberger et al. 2012 Efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention on dementia symptoms and need of care in NH residents with dementia RCT 5 139
[78] Luttenberger et al. 2012 Sustainability of a non-pharmacological intervention after 10 months RCT (Follow-up) 5 61
[48] Majic et al. 2013 Efficacy of animal-assisted therapy on agitation/aggression and depression in nursing home residents with dementia RCT 18 65
[80] Pickel et al. 2011 Efficacy of occupational group therapy in dementia CT N/A 56
[51] Rapp et al. 2013 Efficacy of a complex guideline-based intervention on agitation and the use of psychotropic drugs C-RCT 18 304
[47] Reuther et al. 2014 Effect evaluation of dementia-specific case conferences (study protocol) C-RCT 12 360
[109] Schäufele et al. 2013 Efficacy of an interdisciplinary guideline to enhance the mobility of residents with dementia in nursing homes CT 31 707
[110] Schäufele et al. 2015
[81] Treusch et al. 2015 Effect evaluation of an occupational and sports therapy intervention for PwD in NH C-RCT 18 117
  Observational studies
[85]a Afram et al. 2014 Exploration of reasons and variations for institutionalization of people with dementia in 8 European countries according to caregivers Cross-sectional 3 786
[86]a Alvira et al. 2015 Description of the association between reactions of informal caregivers of people with dementia and health outcomes from 8 European countries Cross-sectional N/A 119
[61] Becker et al. 2005 Development and validation of an instrument to assess quality of life in dementia Cross-sectional 11 121
[87]a Beerens et al. 2014 Exploration of the variance of quality of life and quality of care for people with dementia from 8 European countries Cross-sectional N/A 119
[88] Beerens et al. 2015 Assessment of factors that contribute to the change of quality of life of people with dementia recently admitted to an NH from 8 European countries Longitudinal N/A 791
[22] Brune-Cohrs et al. 2007 Quality of dementia diagnosis in nursing homes Cross-sectional 2 200
[89]a De Mauleon et al. 2014 Determination of factors associated with the antipsychotic prescription for PwD in 8 European countries Cross-sectional N/A 119
[83] Dettbarn-Reggentin 2005 Evaluation of milieu-therapeutic living units on residents with dementia Longitudinal 3 60
[53] Dichter et al. 2013 Validation of the QUALIDEM in nursing homes Cross-sectional 43 634
[111] Dichter et al. 2014 Testing of the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the QUALIDEM instrument to measure quality of life in PwD Cross-sectional 9 161
[44]a Foebel et al. 2014 Description of patterns of antipsychotic drug use in PwD in nursing homes in 7 European countries and Israel Cross-sectional 9 496
[72] Geiger-Kabsich and Weyerer 1993 Validity of the Alters-Konzentrations-Test Cross-sectional 2 71
[91] Gietzelt et al. 2014 Study protocol for an RCT testing the effectiveness of behavioral treatment for mild Alzheimer’s patients Longitudinal 1 40
[41] Graessel et al. 2009 Validation of the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living (E-ADL) Cross-sectional 2 46
[45] Gräske et al. 2014 Examination of variability and associated factors of quality of life ratings Cross-sectional 5 133
[66] Jakob et al. 2002 Prevalence and incidence of dementia in nursing homes compared to private households Longitudinal N/A 192
[69] Köhler et al. 2007 Validation of the Dementia Screening Scale (DSS) Cross-sectional 20 589
[37] Kölzsch et al. 2012 Description of pain treatment in nursing home residents with CI Cross-sectional 40 560
[68] König et al. 2014 Comparison of the costs of care for community-dwelling PwD and PwD living in nursing homes Cross-sectional N/A 48
[62] Lueken et al. 2007 Development of a short version of the Apathy Evaluation Scale specifically adapted for nursing home residents with dementia Cross-sectional N/A 356
[79] Luttenberger et al. 2012 Revalidation of the E-ADL scale Cross-sectional 5 139
[49] Majic et al. 2010 Pharmacotherapy in residents with dementia Cross-sectional 18 304
[50] Majic et al. 2012 Correlation of agitation and depression in nursing home residents with dementia Cross-sectional 18 304
[46] Makai et al. 2014 Validation of the ICECAP-O measure for wellbeing in older PwD in NH and exploration of response-associated factors Cross-sectional 1 95
[58] Marquard and Schmieg 2009 Relationship between architectural characteristics of the nursing home and the residents ability to perform way finding tasks Cross-sectional N/A 450
[59]
[75] Meyer-König et al. 1984 Examination of nursing home residents with a chronic brain syndrome Cross-sectional N/A 163
[38] Osterbrink et al. 2012 Prevalence of pain in nursing home residents with various cognitive functions Cross-sectional 13 436
[57] Palm et al. 2013 Evaluation of the provision of dementia care and identification of resident- and facility-related factors associated with quality of life and behavior Longitudinal N/A N/A
[52] Palm et al. 2015 Comparison of case conferences between dementia-specialized versus traditional care units Cross-sectional 51 888
[67] Riedel et al. 2013 Prevalence of Parkinson’s disease, associated dementia and depression in Dresden Cross-sectional 36 195
[24] Schäufele et al. 2013 Prevalence of dementia and provision of dementia care in nursing homes Cross-sectional 58 4481
[65] Schuler et al. 2007 Validation study of the “Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale” (PAINAD-G) in nursing home residents Cross-sectional 8 99
[39] Schumacher et al. 1997 Prevalence of depression and CI in nursing home residents Cross-sectional 3 380
[23] Seidl et al. 2007 Prevalence of non-cognitive symptoms and psychopharmacological treatment in nursing home residents with dementia Cross-sectional N/A 145
[64] Seidl et al. 2009 Comparison of neurological soft signs of residents with AD with residents without cognitive impairments Cross-sectional N/A 120
[63] Seidl et al. 2011 Description of autobiographical memory deficits in residents with dementia Cross-sectional N/A 239
[84] Theison et al. 2009 Association of agitation in the morning and depression Cross-sectional 3 110
[73] Weyerer et al. 1990 Validation of the Brief-Assessment-Interview Cross-sectional 1 32
[71] Weyerer et al. 1995 Prevalence of dementia and depression in nursing home residents from Mannheim and Camden Cross-sectional 12 542
[56] Weyerer et al. 2004 Comparison of residents from day-care centers and nursing homes Cross-sectional 47 1644
[42] Weyerer et al. 2005 Evaluation of special and traditional dementia care in nursing homes Cross-sectional 31 1644
[43] Weyerer et al. 2010 Evaluation of special and traditional dementia care in nursing homes Cross-sectional 31 1644
[90] Wubker et al. 2015 Comparison of costs for PwD receiving home care versus nursing home care in 8 European countries Cross-sectional N/A 76
[40] Wulff et al. 2012 Description of perceived autonomy of nursing home residents with and without CI Cross-sectional 40 560
[93] Zenthofer et al. 2014 Comparison of oral hygiene and health status of nursing home residents with and without dementia. Cross-sectional N/A 93
  Qualitative studies
[55] Bär et al. 2003 Identification of characteristic situations accompanied by positive emotions Qualitative N/A 29
[60] Becker et al. 2006 Identification and cross-validation of patterns of competence in nursing home residents. Qualitative N/A 362
[92] Nordheim et al. 2015 Evaluation of the use of tablet PCs in PwD in NH Qualitative 1 14
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, C-RCT Cluster-randomized controlled trial, CT controlled trial, N/A not available, NHs nursing homes, P Participants, PwD People with dementia, RCT Randomized controlled trial
  2. aThe number of participants reported from this international study refers to the German sample only