Expected survival and observed survival by cohort. Expected survival (dotted curves) and observed survival (continuous curves) by cohort. a) All, b) Men, c) Women, d) Patients aged 50–64 years, e) Patients aged 65–84 years, and f) Patients aged ≥85 years (Please note slight difference in the time scale). A substantially higher mortality in hip fracture patients, than in the corresponding background population, is shown. The better survival in the 1978–79 cohort in the analyses not stratified on age is explained by the younger patients in this cohort.