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Table 3 Exercise program

From: Safer cycling in older age (SiFAr): a protocol of a randomized controlled trial

Session 1: Mounting/Dismounting the bicycle
- short introduction of the cycling course
- bike check (road safety and ergonomics)
- introduction of balance and strength exercises (Semi-Tandem; wide leg squats, 2 × 10 repetitions)
- information on general behavior and safety instructions in the cycling course
- exercises for getting on and off the bicycle on both sides
Session 2: Braking
- balance exercises (variations of Semi-Tandem-stand, Tandem-stand and one leg-stand with 2 × 10 s holding time per side) and strength exercises (wide leg squats, hip flection, 2 × 10 repetitionsa)
- consolidation of previous session: getting on and off the bicycle at marked position or on command
- exercises for precise braking from different speeds
- teaching of braking techniques and environmental influences on braking distance
Session 3: Riding curves
- balance and strength exercises
- consolidation of previous session: braking/getting of the bicycle to various commands, discussing the effects of divided attention
- teaching and practicing of curve techniques (different speeds and changing curve radius, avoiding obstacles)
Session 4: Track-keeping
- balance and strength exercises
- consolidation of previous session: riding curves one-handed, ride along a partner
- teaching and practicing of techniques to stay on the track: riding through a narrow corridor at various speeds, transfer to real-life situations
Session 5: Turning to the left
- balance and strength exercises
- consolidation of previous session: skill exercises for track-keeping (partner exercises, „snale race“)
- teaching and practicing of techniques for turning to the left (hand-sign, looking over the shoulder) while riding in a straight line
Session 6: Turning to the left
- balance and strength exercises
- consolidation of previous session: riding one-handed (hand-sign) and look over each shoulder while riding in a straight line
- practicing techniques for the 8 steps of turning left in line with traffic regulations
Session 7: Divided attention/complex situations
- balance and strength exercises
- practicing cycling with additional cognitive tasks (calculation, conversation with partner and memorizing the contents of the conversation) and in complex situations (cycling an 8)
- teaching of cycling-related traffic regulations
Session 8: Skills exercises/Practicing
- balance and strength exercises
- teaching of safe traffic behavior (e.g. blind spot, anticipation of mistakes by other drivers)
- Skill exercises for integration of practiced driving techniques (e.g. “shadow riding” with partner)
- course reflection: exchange of experiences
  1. asince each contains a variation of these balance and strength exercises, these are no longer described in detail for sessions 3–8