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  • Correction
  • Open Access

Correction to: Hand dexterity, not handgrip strength, is associated with executive function in Japanese community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study

  • 1, 2,
  • 1Email author,
  • 1,
  • 1,
  • 1,
  • 1,
  • 2 and
  • 1
BMC Geriatrics201818:210

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-018-0907-z

  • Received: 3 September 2018
  • Accepted: 4 September 2018
  • Published:

The original article was published in BMC Geriatrics 2018 18:192

Correction

Following the publication of this article [1], the authors reported a typesetting error in Table 1 that resulted in missing asterisks. This correction shows both the incorrect and correct versions of Table 1, and Table 1 has also been corrected in the original article.
Table 1

Comparison of covariates, hand and cognitive variables among age categories (N = 326)

Variables

Age categories

p-value

60-64 (n = 54)

65-69 (n = 104)

70-74 (n= 101)

≥ 75 (n = 67)

Years of education

14.4 ± 2.5

13.4 ± 2.2

13.3 ± 2.5

12.8 ± 2.7

0.004

TMIG-IC

12.2 ± 0.8

12.3 ± 0.9

12.4 ± 0.9

12.2 ± 1.3

0.645

GDS

2.3 ± 2.1

3.1 ± 2.5

2.5 ± 2.3

3.0 ± 2.3

0.09

Heart disease, n (%)

2 (3.7)

1 (1.0)

11 (10.9)

7 (10.4)

0.012a

Diabetes, n (%)

2 (3.7)

9 (8.7)

6 (5.9)

5 (7.5)

0.670a

Hypertension, n (%)

11 (20.4)

23 (22.1)

27 (26.7)

28 (41.8)

0.020a

Stroke, n (%)

3 (5.6)

6 (5.8)

5 (5.0)

3 (4.5)

0.983a

Hand motor variables, mean ± SD

 Handgrip strength (Kg)

23.4 ± 4.7

22.6 ± 5.3

22.9 ± 7.0

20.9 ± 6.3

0.104

 PPT (Number of pegs)

14.5 ± 1.5

13.7 ± 2.1

13.1 ± 1.9

11.9 ± 1.9†,‡

<0.001

Cognitive variables, mean ± SD

 MMSE

29.2 ± 0.9

28.8 ±1.3

28.9 ± 1.0

28.6 ± 1.3

0.023

 TMT-A

30.2 ± 7.7

35.3 ± 13.2

37.9 ± 11.1

43.2 ±12.4†,‡

<0.001

 TMT-B

74.5 ± 18.6

91.9 ± 37.6

107.4 ± 39.9

121.6 ±40.8

<0.001

 Digit symbolb

67.7 ± 9.3

60.2 ± 13.8

55.3 ± 10.9

45.6 ± 8.4†,‡

<0.001

Values are expressed as mean ± SD

TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology - Index of Competence, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TMT Trail Making Test

Bonferroni correction for post-hoc tests: *p<0.008 vs. 60-64; p<0.008 vs. 65-69; p<0.008 vs. 70-74

aThe Chi-square test was performed

bThe total number of subjects analyzed was 207

Table 1

Comparison of covariates, hand and cognitive variables among age categories (N = 326)

Variables

Age categories

p-value

60-64

(n = 54)

65-69

(n = 104)

70-74

(n = 101)

≥ 75

(n = 67)

Years of education

14.4 ± 2.5

13.4 ± 2.2

13.3 ± 2.5*

12.8 ± 2.7*

0.004

TMIG-IC

12.2 ± 0.8

12.3 ± 0.9

12.4 ± 0.9

12.2 ± 1.3

0.645

GDS

2.3 ± 2.1

3.1 ± 2.5

2.5 ± 2.3

3.0 ± 2.3

0.09

Heart disease, n (%)

2 (3.7)

1 (1.0)

11 (10.9)

7 (10.4)

0.012a

Diabetes, n (%)

2 (3.7)

9 (8.7)

6 (5.9)

5 (7.5)

0.670a

Hypertension, n (%)

11 (20.4)

23 (22.1)

27 (26.7)

28 (41.8)

0.020a

Stroke, n (%)

3 (5.6)

6 (5.8)

5 (5.0)

3 (4.5)

0.983a

Hand motor variables, mean ± SD

 Handgrip strength (Kg)

23.4 ± 4.7

22.6 ± 5.3

22.9 ± 7.0

20.9 ± 6.3

0.104

 PPT (Number of pegs)

14.5 ± 1.5

13.7 ± 2.1

13.1 ± 1.9*

11.9 ± 1.9*,†,‡

<0.001

Cognitive variables, mean ± SD

 MMSE

29.2 ± 0.9

28.8 ±1.3

28.9 ± 1.0

28.6 ± 1.3*

0.023

 TMT-A

30.2 ± 7.7

35.3 ± 13.2

37.9 ± 11.1*

43.2 ±12.4*,†,‡

<0.001

 TMT-B

74.5 ± 18.6

91.9 ± 37.6*

107.4 ± 39.9*,†

121.6 ±40.8*,†

<0.001

 Digit symbolb

67.7 ± 9.3

60.2 ± 13.8

55.3 ± 10.9*

45.6 ± 8.4*,†,‡

<0.001

Values are expressed as mean ± SD

TMIG-IC Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology - Index of Competence, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TMT Trail Making Test

Bonferroni correction for post-hoc tests: *p<0.008 vs. 60-64; p<0.008 vs. 65-69; p<0.008 vs. 70-74

aThe Chi-square test was performed

bThe total number of subjects analyzed was 207

The incorrect version is:

The correct version is:

Notes

Declarations

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Research Team for Social Participation and Community Health, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan
(2)
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Keio University, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan

Reference

  1. Kobayashi-Cuya et al. BMC Geriatr (2018) 18:192 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-018-0880-6

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2018

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