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Table 2 Findings from the clinical/epidemiological research that objectively quantified masticatory performance using functional assessments published in the past five years

From: Revisiting the link between cognitive decline and masticatory dysfunction

Search criteria: 1. Key word combination: (“mixing ability” OR “cutting ability” OR “crushing ability” OR “masticatory ability” OR “chewing ability” OR “masticatory performance” OR “masticatory efficiency” OR “chewing efficiency” OR “chewing performance”) AND (cognit* OR memory OR dement*) AND (cognit* OR memory OR dement*) 2. Language: English 3. Publication date: 2012.10.15–2017.10.15
Reference Study group Outcome assessment Major findings (direct quotation)
Kim et al. 2017 [34] 295 participants (age ≥ 70 years), a rural city of Korea Color- changeable chewing gum, MMSE-DS, ADL, MNA ‘Our findings suggest that poor chewing ability is associated with cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly living in rural area.’
Campos et al. 2017 [38] 16 AD patients (mean age = 76.7yers) and 16 controls (mean age = 75.2 years) Optocal chewable test, sieve fractionation test, MMSE ‘Compared to controls, mild AD patients had decreased MP (P < 0.01) and MMSE (P = 0.01). MP showed a moderate negative correlation with MMSE (r = −0.69).’
Weijenberg et al. 2015 [37] 114 patients with dementia (age 66–97 years) Two-color gum mixing ability test, a multi-domain neuropsychological test battery ‘Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency.’
Elsig et al. 2015 [36] 29 patients with dementia (age ≥ 75 years), 22 controlsa Two-color mixing test, dental and nutritional assessment ‘The chewing efficiency by visual inspection proved worse in participants with dementia than in the controls (p < 0.011) and explained 9.3% of the variance in the diagnosis of dementia.’
Kimura et al. 2013 [35] 269 community-dwelling elderly aged ≥75 living in Tosa, Japan Color-changeable chewing gum, MMSE, HDSR and FAB, ADL, QOL, FDSK-11 ‘Lower cognitive functions were significantly related to low chewing ability; MMSE (P = 0.022), HDSR (P = 0.017) and FAB (P = 0.002).’
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, ADL activities of daily living, DS Dementia Screening, FAB Frontal Assessment Battery, FDSK-11 Food Diversity Score Kyoto, HDS-R Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, MMSE Mini-mental state examination, MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment, MP masticatory performance, QOL quality of life
  2. aIncluding 19 cognitively normal participants and 3 patients with mild cognitive impairment