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Table 2 Changes over time, baseline (T0) and follow-up 2 (T2), in the intervention group (n = 98) and comparison group (n = 68) concerning wellbeing, proxy-pain and functional dependency

From: Systematic pain assessment in nursing homes: a cluster-randomized trial using mixed-methods approach

  Intervention group, median (Q1, Q3) Within groupf Comparison group, median (Q1, Q3) Within groupf Changes over time between the groupsg
Measurements, n intervention/comparison T0 T2 p-value T0 T2 p-value p-value
QUALIDa 53/32 21 (17–27) 22 (17–28) .409 23.5 (17.25–29.75) 22,5 (17.0–27.75) .965 .733
WHO-5 wellbeing indexb 24/31 64 (50–80) 68 (46–83) .665 76 (56–88) 76 (64–88) .965 .683
Proxy-NRSc 97/67 3 (1.0–5.25) 2 (0–5.5) .396 3 (1–6) 4 (1–6) .711 .309
Katz-ADLd 98/66 4 (2–6) 5 (2–6) .638 3 (1–5) 5 (2–6) <.001 .001
ADCS-ADL sev.e 60/33 10.5 (5–21.75) 9 (4.25–15.75) .011 6 (4–20.5) 7 (5–13) .498 .297
  1. Q quartil, aQualid scale: Quality of Life in Dementia Scale, an observational scale, range with minimum score 11 indicating high QOL and maximum score is 55 indicating poor QOL. bWHO-5 index: WHO-5 well-being index: self-report, score from 0 (worst thinkable well-being) to 100 (best thinkable well-being). cNumeric Rating Scale: self-report, from 0 (no pain) through 10 (worst imaginable pain). dKatz index of ADLs: score from 0 to 6, higher score indicating more dependency.eADCS-ADL: Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Scale, scale from 0 to 54 points with lower scores indicating more dependency. f Wilcoxon Signed Rank-Test gMann-Whitney U-test