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Table 1 Prevalence and incidence of frailty by blood glucose status

From: The prevalence and incidence of frailty in Pre-diabetic and diabetic community-dwelling older population: results from Beijing longitudinal study of aging II (BLSA-II)

  Prevalence of frailty Incidence of Frailty
  Non-diabetes (n = 6410) N (%) Pre-diabetes (n = 875) N (%) Diabetes (n = 2634) N (%) P value Non-diabetes (n = 4019) N (%) Pre-diabetes (n = 573) N (%) Diabetes (n = 1575) N (%) P value
Overall 764 (11.92) 100 (11.43) 509 (19.32) <.0001 283 (7.04) 50 (8.73) 194 (12.32) <.0001
Residence
 Urban 722 (14.51) 91 (14.70) 483 (22.2) <.0001 247 (7.76) 45 (10.71) 184 (14.10) <.0001
 Rural 42 (2.93) 9 (3.52) 26 (5.62) 0.0254 36 (4.31) 5 (3.27) 10 (3.70) 0.7925
Gender
 Male 249 (9.97) 29 (8.12) 160 (16.39) <.0001 95 (5.82) 21 (8.57) 61 (9.65) 0.0038
 Female 515 (13.16) 71 (13.71) 349 (21.05) <.0001 188 (7.87) 29 (8.84) 133 (14.10) <.0001
Age group
 55–64 70 (3.84) 8 (3.00) 51 (8.12) <.0001 33 (2.76) 8 (4.44) 19 (4.62) 0.1370
 65–74 285 (10.51) 41 (11.17) 2013 (17.67) <.0001 114 (6.36) 23 (9.24) 81 (11.22) 0.0002
 75–84 362 (21.17) 41 (18.64) 234 (28.85) <.0001 116 (12.17) 18 (13.14) 86 (20.33) 0.0003
 ≥85 47 (28.83) 10 (47.62) 22 (42.31) 0.0712 20 (25.32) 1 (14.29) 8 (42.11) 0.2433
Coexisting co-morbidity
 0 16 (0.78) 1 (0.39) 11 (1.99) 0.0237 42 (3.09) 7 (4.09) 29 (7.55) 0.0005
 1–2 356 (10.27) 43 (8.65) 200 (13.55) 0.0007 174 (7.69) 31 (8.88) 95 (9.88) 0.1164
 ≥3 392 (43.56) 56 (45.90) 298 (49.34) 0.0877 67 (16.92) 12 (22.64) 70 (30.57) 0.0004
Polypharmacy/day
 0–3 409 (7.70) 45 (6.25) 149 (9.19) 0.0353 206 (5.97) 41 (8.47) 116 (10.84) <.0001
 ≥4 354 (33.24) 55 (36.67) 359 (36.19) 0.3299 75 (13.69) 9 (10.59) 74 (15.04) 0.5210
Anti-diabetic medication
 Never / / 68 (10.86)   / / 36 (8.82) 0.1794
 Occasionally / / 11 (22.00)   / / 5 (15.63)  
 Regularly / / 430 (21.96)   / / 153 (13.48)  
BMI status
 <19 58 (22.75) 4 (23.53) 19 (30.65) 0.4275 12 (9.30) 0 1 (2.94) 0.3112
 19–28 547 (10.61) 64 (9.61) 373 (18.18) <.0001 224 (6.85) 34 (7.71) 148 (11.94) <.0001
 ≥28 154 (15.88) 32 (17.11) 114 (22.53) 0.0065 47 (7.83) 16 (13.33) 43 (14.68) 0.0040
Hours of outdoor activity/day
 0 93 (32.18) 13 (28.26) 57 (43.18) 0.0545 7 (5.74) 4 (15.38) 4/49 (8.16) 0.2389
 <0.5 h 171 (15.21) 26 (16.05) 127 (26.19) <.0001 51 (7.10) 16 (14.16) 44 (15.88) <.0001
 0.5–1 h 353 (12.32) 46 (13.03) 227 (18.49) <.0001 146 (7.71) 20 (8.62) 93 (12.13) 0.0014
 2–3 h 125 (8.09) 13 (5.99) 83 (13.65) <.0001 58 (6.24) 10 (7.04) 43 (11.75) 0.0036
 ≥4 h 22 (3.88) 2 (2.13) 15 (8.47) 0.0189 21 (6.12) 0 (0) 10 (8.93) 0.0680
Doing or helping with house work
 Never 160 (22.22) 23 (20.18) 116 (29.90) 0.0096 33 (9.02) 6 (10.53) 31 (15.82) 0.0517
 Occasionally 252 (11.09) 41 (12.89) 173 (18.21) <.0001 111 (7.61) 22 (10.38) 73 (12.56) 0.0017
 Regularly 352 (10.30) 36 (8.13) 220 (16.98) <.0001 139 (6.34) 22 (7.24) 90 (11.28) <.0001