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Table 3 Associations of pain-related and cognitive affective variables on kinesiophobia among older adults with chronic pain2. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis (enter model); for TSK-111

From: Kinesiophobia and its relation to pain characteristics and cognitive affective variables in older adults with chronic pain

Variables Univariate linear regression Multiple linear regression
B P-value B Beta P-value
Age 0.235 <0. 001 0.111 0.097 0.101
Gender (0 = man, 1 = women) -0.720 0.466    
Living condition (0 = own accommodation 1 = care home) 10.354 0.005 0.058 0.001 0.988
Pain intensity3 2.213 <0.001 1.215 0.439 0.006
Pain localisation      
Other locations a reference      
Upper extremities 1.267 0. 478    
Lower extremities 2.344 0.133    
Shoulder/neck 0.948 0.068    
Back/pelvis 0.542 0.707    
Depressed mood (0 = no, 1 = yes) 2.991 0.002 0.485 0.029 0.521
General self-efficacy4 -0.225 0.002 -0.015 0.012 0.839
Self –perceived health      
Excellent health reference      
Very good health -0.189 0.945 -2.130 -0.097 0.473
Good health 3.344 0.199 0.800 0.048 0.781
Fair health 7.213 0.006 3.496 0.212 0.230
Poor health 14.492 <0.001 8.838 0.264 0.010
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. 1Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK-11), sores ranging from 11–44 points with high scores indicating high Kinesiophobia
  3. 2Pain of duration ≥3 months
  4. 3Pain intensity = “average level of pain in the last week” measured using a 6-point Likert scale with answers ranging from “No pain at all” to “Tremendous amount of pain”
  5. 4General self-efficacy scale (GSE), scores ranging from 10-40 points with high scores indicating high self-efficacy
  6. aOther includes: others locations, feet and hands