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Table 3 Correlations among central study variables

From: Physical, cognitive, social and mental health in near-centenarians and centenarians living in New York City: findings from the Fordham Centenarian Study

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Background variables           
 1. Age ––           
 2. Gender 0.15*** ––          
 3. Residence (1 = priv, 2 = inst) −0.05 0.08 ––         
 4. Widowed (1 = yes, 0 = no) 0.06 0.07 −0.05 ––        
 5. Education −0.19* −0.02 −0.13 −0.03 ––       
 6. US born (1 = yes, 0 = no) 0.05 −0.03 0.17 0.14 0 .14 ––      
Physical functioning            
 7. Number of illnesses −0.08 −0.01 −0.10 0 .07 0.05 0.05 ––     
 8. Subjective health 0.12 −0.10 −0.04 0.00 0.01 0.05 −0.19* ––    
 9. PADL −0.02 −0.15 −0.32** −0.04 0.11 −0.06 −0.46** −0.27** ––   
 10. IADL −0.13 −0.14 −0.11 0.06 0.08 −0.03 −0.31** −0.17*** 0.77** ––  
Cognitive functioning            
 11. MMSE −0.18* −0.08 −0.05 0.12 0.24** 0.12 0.15 −0.02 0.08 0.21* ––  
 12. GlobDetScalea −0.10 −0.03 0.06 0.00 0.03 0.09 0.18*** 0.00 0.08 0.12 0.75* ––  
Social resources            
 13. Number of living children −0.13 −0.09 0 .00 0.22* −0.03 0.08 0.01 −0.04 −0.13 −0.03 0.03 0.04 ––  
 14. Relatives support −0.11 −0.04 −0.02 0.04 0.27** 0.20*** 0.01 0.11 0.04 0.08 0.10 0.07 0.27* ––  
 15. Friends support 0.08 0.00 −0.01 −0.01 0.08 0.24* 0.01 0.15 0.20*** 0.30** 0.14 0.07 −0.9 0.28* ––  
Mental health            
 16. GDS 0.11 0.08 −0.01 0.00 −0.04 0.02 0.20* −0.36** −0.37** −0.38** 0.05 0.08 0.15 0.30* 0.31*  
 17. Life satisfaction −0.01 −0.07 −0.13 0.15 −0.08 0.05 −0.11 0.26** 0.27** 0.18*** 0.09 0.02 0.25* 0.20*** 0.15 0.51* ––
  1. Residence priv private, inst = institution. PADL = Personal Activities of Daily Living; IADL = Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; MMSE = Mini-Mental State Examination, shortened, max. 21); GlobDetScale = Global Deterioration Scale; GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale; aReverse coded for ease of interpretation; Higher values indicate better functioning (except Number of Illness and GDS)
  2. *p < 0.01 (2-tailed); **p < 0.05 (2-tailed); ***p < 0.10 (2-tailed)