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Table 3 Associations of vision and hearing impairments with adverse health outcomes (dependence in ADLs or death) through three potential intermediate factors by gender.

From: Gender-specific associations of vision and hearing impairments with adverse health outcomes in older Japanese: a population-based cohort study

  Model 2 a RR (95% CI) Model 2 + Instrumental activities of daily living b RR (95% CI) P-value Model 2 + depressive mode c RR (95%) CI) P-value Model 2 + cognitive function d RR (95% CI) P-value
Men        
   Vision impairment        
No 1.00 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Impaired 1.43 (0.63 3.26) 0.73 (0.24 2.21) .578 1.20 (0.53 2.71) .657 1.12 (0.50 2.52) .784
   Hearing impairment        
No 1.00 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Impaired 3.10 (1.43 6.72) 2.39 (1.04 5.52) .041 2.72 (1.27 5.83) .010 3.02 (1.37 6.62) .006
Women        
   Vision impairment        
No 1.00 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Impaired 1.60 (0.97 2.63) 1.56 (0.91 2.65) .103 1.55 (0.89 2.68) .119 1.60 (0.97 2.63) .065
   Hearing impairment        
No 1.00 1.00   1.00   1.00  
Impaired 0.71 (0.38 1.31) 0.75 (0.40 1.39) .359 0.71 (0.37 1.34) .290 0.70 (0.38 1.29) .249
  1. RR: risk ratio, CI: confidence interval. aVariables included in the model 2 were vision and hearing impairments, age (continuous), education, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, past/current history of major illness and diabetes mellitus.bTokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (score 0-13). cGeriatric Depression Scale, 5-item version (score 0-5). dClock drawing test (score 0-4).