Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Risk ratios of adverse health outcomes (dependence in ADLs or death) for vision and hearing impairments by gender.

From: Gender-specific associations of vision and hearing impairments with adverse health outcomes in older Japanese: a population-based cohort study

  Incidence (%) Crude RR (95% CI) P-value Model 1 a RR (95% CI) P-value Model 2 b RR (95% CI)   P-value Pfor interaction c
Men          
   Vision impairment          
No 23/275 (8.4) 1.00   1.00   1.00    
Impaired 11/60 (18.3) 2.19 (1.13-4.25) .020 1.83 (0.95-3.53) .071 1.43 (0.63-3.26)   .393  
   Hearing impairment          
No 18/271 (6.6) 1.00   1.00   1.00    
Impaired 16/64 (25.0) 3.76 (2.03 -6.97) < .001 3.49 (1.86-6.53) < .001 3.10 (1.43-6.72)   .004  
Women          
   Vision impairment          
No 23/301 (7.6) 1.00   1.00   1.00    
Impaired 29/160 (18.1) 2.37 (1.42-3.96) .001 2.28 (1.35-3.83) .002 1.60 (0.97-2.63)   .064  
   Hearing impairment          
No 34/345 (9.9) 1.00   1.00   1.00    
Impaired 18/116 (15.5) 1.57 (0.93-2.68) .094 1.40 (0.82-2.39) .216 0.71 (0.38-1.31)   .269  
Men and Women          
   Vision impairment          
No 46/576 (8.0) 1.00   1.00   1.00    
Impaired 40/220 (18.2) 2.28 (1.53-3.38) < .001 2.07 (1.38-3.09) < .001 1.60 (1.05-2.44)   .028 .904
   Hearing impairment          
No 52/616 (8.4) 1.00   1.00   1.00    
Impaired 34/180 (18.9) 2.24 (1.50-3.34) < .001 2.00 (1.33-3.01) .001 1.23 (0.76-1.97)   .396 .006
  1. RR: risk ratio, CI: confidence interval. a Variables included in the model 1 were vision and hearing impairments. bIn addition to the model 1, age (continuous), education, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, past/current history of major illness and diabetes mellitus were included. For combined-gender analysis, we further adjusted for gender.cStatistical interaction between sensory impairments and gender with a likelihood ratio test.