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Table 2 Types of caregiver assistance

From: Examining the impact of familiarity on faucet usability for older adults with dementia

Assistance type Assistance description
No assistance The participant completed the step independently
Verbal 1 A simple verbal cue was given by the caregiver to orient the participant to the step s/he was attempting (e.g., “Can you turn on the water?”)
Verbal 2 A verbal prompt was given by the caregiver specifying how to accomplish the step (e.g., “Try pulling the lever toward you”)
Demonstrative 1 Caregiver pointed to or lightly touched the region of interest with accompanying verbal instruction (e.g., touching the handle of the faucet while saying “Try turning on the water”)
Demonstrative 2 Caregiver demonstrated how to complete the step with accompanying verbal instruction (e.g., turning the tap on then off to demonstrate how it works while saying “Try turning on the water like this”)
Hand-over-hand Taking the participant’s hand into her own, the caregiver and participant completed the step together
Completed by caregiver The caregiver completed the step