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Table 3 Factors associated with the use of medications potentially causing urinary symptoms

From: Prevalence of commonly prescribed medications potentially contributing to urinary symptoms in a cohort of older patients seeking care for incontinence

Predictor Crude odds ratio Adjusted odds ratio*
(95% CI) (95% CI)
Age 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1) 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1)
Sex 1.5 (0.7 - 3.0) 1.1 (0.5 - 2.3)
Polypharmacy (≥ 5 drugs) 5.3 (3.4 – 8.2) 4.9 (3.1 – 7.9)
Multimorbidity (≥ 3) 2.0 (1.2 - 3.3) 1.2 (0.6 – 2.03)
Depression 1.1 (0.7 - 1.67) 0.7 (0.4 - 1.2)
Cardiovascular disease 2.0 (1.3 - 3.0) 1.4 (0.8 - 2.3)
Hypertension 2.2 (1.4 - 3.5) 1.5 (0.9 - 2.7)
Respiratory disease 1.7 (1.0 - 3.1) 1.4 (0.7 - 2.9)
Gastrointestinal disorders 1.5 (1.0 - 2.2) 1.1 (0.6 - 1.9)
Dyslipidemia 1.6 (1.1 - 2.4) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.5)
Renal failure 1.6 (0.6 - 4.1) 0.7 (0.2 - 2.1)
Musculoskeletal disorders 1.3 (1.0 - 1.6) 0.9 (0.6 - 1.2)
Diabetes 1.4 (0.9 - 2.3) 0.9 (0.5 - 1.7)
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, polypharmacy and multimorbidity.