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Table 2 Odds ratios for self-reported good health and depressive symptoms among older South Africans

From: Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

Variables Self-rated good health Depression symptoms
Sociodemographics Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age     
  50–59 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
  60–69 0.62 (0.48-0.80)*** 0.65 (0.48-0.87)** 0.86 (0.65-1.15)  
  70–79 0.46 (0.28-0.76)** 0.49 (0.29-0.82)** 0.86 (0.64-1.14)  
  80+ 0.39 (0.19-0.80)* 0.55 (0.24-1.29) 0.91 (0.56-1.48)  
Gender     
  Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Male 1.37 (1.04-1.81)* 1.01 (0.74-1.38) 0.82 (0.67-1.00)* 1.06 (0.82-1.38)
Educational level     
  No schooling 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
  Less than primary 0.73 (0.51-1.05) 0.82 (0.54-1.25) 1.18 (0.88-1.57)  
  Primary 0.79 (0.49-1.28) 0.92 (0.58-1.45) 1.17 (0.82-1.66)  
  Secondary 1.79 (1.13-2.84)* 1.63 (1.06-2.07)* 0.77 (0.55-1.08)  
Wealth     
  Low 1.00 --- 1.00 ---
  Medium 1.30 (0.76-2.23)   1.05 (0.57-1.93)  
  High 1.78 (0.97-3.25)   0.84 (0.42-1.68)  
Social capital     
Married/cohabiting 1.71 (1.37-2.13)*** 1.48 (1.06-2.07)* 0.68 (0.53-0.88)** 0.68 (0.51-0.91)*
Social action     
Low 1.00 --- 1.00 ---
Medium 1.36 (0.86-2.14)   0.99 (0.70-1.41)  
High 1.07 (0.79-1.47)   0.91 (0.46-1.40)  
Sociability     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 ---
Medium 1.58 (1.00-2.49)* 1.44 (0.88-2.35) 0.79 (0.56-1.11)  
High 1.85 (0.85-4.02) 1.54 (0.82-2.87) 0.99 (0.60-1.62)  
Trust and solidarity     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.31 (0.73-2.34) 1.13 (0.72-1.77) 0.64 (0.37-1.11) 0.74 (0.47-1.18)
High 2.40 (1.19-4.86)* 1.89 (1.09-3.30)* 0.42 (0.21-0.85)* 0.49 (0.27-0.88)*
Safety     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 1.02 (0.62-1.69) 1.19 (0.69-2.05) 0.60 (0.37-0.98)* 0.57 (0.31-1.03)
High 1.94 (1.18-3.18)** 1.65 (0.96-2.84) 0.55 (0.29-1.05) 0.80 (0.44-1.43)
Civic engagement     
Low 1.00 --- 1.00 ---
Medium 1.22 (0.65-2.31)   1.29 (0.78 -2.12)  
High 1.36 (0.75-2.47)   1.22 (0.75-1.97)  
Psychological resources     
Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Medium 2.76 (1.79-4.26)*** 2.22 (1.45-3.41)*** 0.32 (0.19-0.55)*** 0.34 (0.21-0.56)***
High 4.20 (2.33-7.59)*** 3.18 (1.69-6.00)*** 0.24 (0.12-0.47)*** 0.22 (0.11-0.45)***
  1. ***P < .001; **P < .01; *P < .05.