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Table 2 Baseline Characteristics of the Participants, Total Patient Number = 117

From: A pilot randomized controlled trial to improve geriatric frailty

Characteristics EN (N = 55) Non-EN (N = 62) P-value‡ PST (N = 57) Non-PST (N = 60) P-value‡
n (%) mean ± sd† n (%) mean ± sd† n (%) mean ± sd† n (%) mean ± sd†
Frailty-Related Characteristics
CCSHA_CFS TV       
 well, with treated co-morbid diseases (3) 24 (44) 23 (37 ) 0.719 24 (42) 23 (38) 0.755
 apparently vulnerable (4) 25 (45) 30 (48)   27 (47) 28 (7)  
 mildly frail (5) + moderately frail (6) 6 (11) 9 (15)   6 (11) 9 (15)  
CHS_PCF categorization       
 pre-frail (1–2) 46 (84) 56 (90) 0.280 48 (84) 54 (90) 0.349
 frail (3–5) 9 (16) 6 (10)   9 (16 ) 6 (10 )  
CHS_PCF characteristics       
 Weight loss (yes) 18 (33) 12 (19) 0.098 12 (21 ) 18 (3) 0.268
 Exhaustion (yes) 25 (45 ) 23 (37) 0.359 22 (39) 26(43) 0.603
 Low activity level (yes) 3 (5) 6 (10) 0.498 5(9) 4(7) 0.739
 Slowness (yes) 10(18) 12(9) 0.871 15 (26) 7 (12) 0.043
 Weakness (yes) 33 (60) 50 (81) 0.014 42 (74) 41 (68) 0.524
Demographics
Age (y/o) 70.9 ± 3.7 71.9 ± 3.7 0.158 71.5 ±3.7 71.3 ± 3.9 0.673
Female sex 33(60) 36(58) 0.832 33(58) 36 (60) 0.817
Health-Related Characteristics
Number of chronic conditions§(N = 114) 4.0 ± 2.1 3.1 ± 2.2 0.022 3.8 ± 2.4 3.2 ± 1.9 0.184
MMSE 24.8 ± 3.9 24.1 ± 3.9 0.358 24.7 ± 3.8 24.2 ± 4.0 0.552
PRIME-MD 2.1 ± 3.2 2.8 ± 3.5 0.229 2.7 ± 3.3 2.3 ± 3.4 0.469
Barthel Index 98.8 ± 3.7 97.9 ± 5.4 0.284 98.2 ± 5.4 98.4 ± 4.0 0.846
EQ-5D 0.94 ± 0.08 0.94 ± 0.08 0.969 0.95 ± 0.08 0.93 ± 0.08 0.246
Healthcare-resource utilization 1.5 ± 1.7 1.7 ± 2.2 0.517 1.6 ± 1.7 1.7 ± 2.2 0.846
Body Composition, and Musculoskeletal System Characteristics
BMI (kg/m2) 25.0 ± 3.3 25.8 ± 3.9 0.229 25.0 ± 3.8 25.8 ± 3.5 0.251
FFM (kg) 42.3 ± 7.0 43.6 ± 7. 9 0.345 42.2 ± 7.3 43.7 ± 7.6 0.275
Compres sion Fracture form Spine XRAY 53 (96) 58 (94) 0.683 54 (95) 57 (95) 1.000
BMD (T-score) (N = 115)       
> −1 13 (25) 10(16) 0.262 13 (23) 10(17) 0.401
−1 40 (75) 52 (84)   43 (77) 49 (83)  
Left one leg stand time (sec) (N = 111) 5.7 ± 6.9 5.8 ± 5.9 0.949 5.3 ± 6.7 6.2 ± 6.0 0.483
Dominant leg extension power (kg) 26.3 ± 5.1 25.2 ± 6.8 0.295 23.9 ± 6.5 27.4 ± 5.1 0.002
Blood Examination
25(OH) Vitamin D (ng/mL) (N = 109) 17.8 ± 5.3 17.2 ± 6.2 0.558 17.9 ± 5.5 17.2 ± 6.0 0.514
  1. †:Categorical data:n (%);Continuous variables:mean ± sd.
  2. ‡:Categorical data:χ 2 test or Fisher’s exact test;Continuous variables: t-test.
  3. §:From 27 diseases.
  4. :Emergency room visits, hospitalizations, or clinic visits in the past 3 months.
  5. :The minimum T-score of either the femoral neck or the spinal mean at L2–L4.
  6. BMD:Bone Mineral Density, BMI: Body mass index, CCSHA_CFS TV:Chinese Canadian Study of Health and Aging_Clinical Frailty Scale Telephone Version, CHS_PCF:Cardiovascular Health Study_Phenotypical Classifica tion of Frailty, EN:Exercise and Nutrition, EQ-5D:EuroQol Quality of Life Scale, FFM:Fat Free Mass, MMSE:Mini-Mental State Examination, PRIME-MD:Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PST:Problem Solving Therapy.