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Table 3 Outcome: Complaints, effect size, quality of life (estimated means and confidence intervals from the statistical model) in the study sample of older adults (> 70 years) under homeopathic treatment

From: Homeopathic treatment of elderly patients - a prospective observational study with follow-up over a two year period

STATUS Month 0 Month 3 Month 12 Month 24   
SEVERITY (NRS, All Diagnoses, Mean and 95% CI)
Complaintsa 6.27 (5.70; 6.84) 4.31 (3.71; 4.90) 4.41 (3.87; 4.95) 4.57 (4.03; 5.10)   
Diagnosesb 6.57 (6.03; 7.11) 4.77 (4.23; 5.30) 4.63 (4.09; 5.16) 3.72 (3.19; 4.26)   
QUALITY OF LIFE (SF-36 Component Scores, Mean and 95% CI)
Physical 38.37 (34.26; 42.47) 39.22 (35.11; 43.32) 38.86 (34.81; 42.90) 36.32 (32.29-40.35)   
Mental 46.22 (41.56; 50.88) 49.59 (44.91; 54.27) 47.62 (43.04; 52.21) 46.02 (41.46; 50.58)   
CHANGE c
  Months 0-3 p c Months 0-12 p c Months 0-24 p c
SEVERITY (NRS, All Diagnoses, Mean and 95% CI)
Complaintsa -1.96 (-2.67;-1.25) < 0.001 -1.87 (-2.86; -0.88) < 0.001 -1.71 (-2.83; -0.59) < 0.001
Diagnosesb -1.80 (-2.39; -1.21) < 0.001 -1.94 (-2.71; -1.17) < 0.001 -2.84 (-3.72; -1,96) < 0.001
QUALITY OF LIFE (SF-36 Component Scores, Mean and 95% CI)
Physical 0.85 (-1.20; 2.90) 1.00 0.49 (-3.08; 4.06) 1.00 -2.05 (-6.86; 1.76) 1.00
Mental 3.37 (0,62; 6.12) 0.036 1.40 (-3.29; 6.09) 1.00 -0,20 (-6.41; 6.01) 1.00
STANDARDIZED MEAN CHANGE c
  Months 0-3 p c Months 0-12 p c Months 0-24 p c
SEVERITY (NRS, All Diagnoses, Mean and 95% CI)
Complaintsa -1.21 (-1.65; -0.77) < 0.001 -1.15 (-1.76; -0.54) < 0.001 -1.05 (-1.74; -0.36) < 0.001
Diagnosesb -1.08 (-1.44; -0.72) < 0.001 -1.17 (-1.64; -0.70) < 0.001 -1.72 (-2.25; -1.19) < 0.001
QUALITY OF LIFE (SF-36 Component Scores, Mean and 95% CI)
Physical 0.05 (-0.07; 0.17) 1.00 0.03 (-0.17; 0.23) 1.00 -0.11 (-0.38; 0.16) 1.00
Mental 0.16 (0.02-0.30) 0.036 0.07 (-0.16; 0.30) 1.00 -0.01 (-0.32; 0.30) 1.00
  1. a Complaints = Patients' Assessment;b Diagnoses = Physicians' Assessment
  2. c p-values and confidence intervals were multiply adjusted to maintain an overall level of significance of 5%. However, due to the nature of this study they should only be interpreted as exploratory.
  3. NRS = Numerical Rating Scale: 10 = maximum, 0 = no complaints. Negative change in NRS indicates improvement. Positive quality of life change indicates improvement.
  4. Absolute effect size > 0.8, large; > 0.5, medium; > 0.2, small.